The symptoms of infectious mononucleosis(or mono symptoms) are very diverse. In 2 / 3 of patients the disease begins acutely, states:
- a significant increase in temperature,
- muscle and joint pain,
- sleep and appetite disorder,
- there may be light chills, alternating with excessive sweating.
From the first days of illness worries throat sore, which is reinforced when swallowing. Simultaneously observed hyperplasia of lymph nodes and labored nasal breathing. Most clearly listed mono symptoms become pronounced in 4-5-fifth day of illness; in the same period is determined by the increase in the size of the liver and spleen and in the blood appear atypical mononuclear cells.
In some cases, may occur subacute onset with prodrome: against the background of general malaise observed low-grade temperature of the body, expressed mild catarrhal changes of the upper respiratory tract.
In some patients the leading complaint is abdominal pain, often in the right iliac region, and sometimes nausea and vomiting, abdominal distention, delayed stool or diarrhea.
The disease can develop silently, with the first symptom of mono that causes the patient to turn to doctor, is lymph nodes enlargement. However, the most characteristic symptoms of mononucleosis are fever and tonsillitis.
The temperature is highly variable and may persist from 1-2 days to 3 weeks or longer. At 1/3 of patients in the early days of body temperature and low-grade clearly increases up to 38 ˚C and above only at the end of the first week of illness. Increased and prolonged febrile is noticed in adults and children. For some patients there is two-and three-wave fever apyrexia with periods of several days. The average duration of fever is 6-10 days.
The typical temperature curve with infectious mononucleosis does not exist. The body temperature reduces lytic, which coincides with the improvement of general condition and with decreasing severity of other symptoms. It should be noted that after the main wave of low-grade fever is often preserved body temperature.
The temperature reaction is combined with other mono symptoms in the first place with changes in the throat. Small congestion in the throat and tonsillar hyperplasia observed in many patients with the first days of illness. Often these changes are combined with a lesion of nasopharynx. Clinically it is manifested by difficult nasal breathing and nasal tinge of speech. Simultaneously, there is considerable swelling of tonsils, which may come into contact with each other. If you could see the back of the throat, you may notice that its edema and congestion with signs of hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue the rear wall of the pharynx can be covered with thick mucus.
3-4 days after onset of the disease in the tonsils of different sizes appear white fur, which is easily removable with a spatula. In some cases, fur can be localized to the posterior wall of the pharynx, the tongue and even the epiglottis. Changes in the throat accompanied by fever. The length of pharynx lesion is 10-15 days; with timely and adequate treatment angina wears off rather fast.
In patients with tonsillectomy the reaction of the pharynx lymphoid tissue is manifested in the form of increased lateral ridges and granules of the posterior wall of the pharynx. Often, there are enlarged lymph nodes but the most pronounced increase in cervical lymph nodes. Enlarged lymph nodes almost never cause pain.
At the same time can be increased and other groups of lymph nodes – axillary, and inguinal cubital. Increased lymph node persists for 1-2 weeks, and sometimes mild lymphadenopathy observed during 1,5-2 months or more.
At 3-4th day of illness increases the liver and spleen. Hepatomegaly accompanied by a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, sometimes, rarely vomiting. Often observed moderate hyperbilirubinemia, increase of ALT, thymol.
What is Infectious Mononucleosis?
Infectious mononucleosis(mono) is an infectious disease characterized by fever, lymphadenopathym and throat sore, spleen and liver enlargement, and the appearance of atypical mononuclear cells in the blood. Pathogen – Epstein-Barr virus from the herpes virus family. The source of parasite infection is a sick man and the virus carrier. About 20% of healthy people and 100% of patients with HIV infection shed the virus. The causative agent is allocated with saliva and is transmitted by airborne droplets, kissing, sometimes sexually. Infection contributed to overcrowding, the use of common utensils, bedding, towels and other ill mostly teenagers and young people aged up to 30 years. Most infections result in asymptomatic infection and the formation of immunity. The virus in the body lives during the whole life.
How is infectious mononucleosis diagnosed?
Diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is based on the above mono symptoms and signs. Infectious mononucleosis can be identified, if you do blood tests, which may exclude other possible causes of symptoms such as angina. At the beginning of infectious mononucleosis, blood tests show an increase in white blood cells (leukocytes). Some of leukocytes “atypical” and point to infectious mononucleosis.
Specific blood tests, such as tests for antibodies may confirm the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. These tests measure the antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. Unfortunately, the antibodies can not be found on the second or third week of illness. Biochemical analysis of blood may show a violation of hepatic function.
What is the treatment of infectious mononucleosis?
In most cases of infectious mononucleosis there is no specific treatment. Treatment aims at relieving the mono symptoms. Available antiviral drugs have no effect and may actually prolong the course of disease. Rarely develops angina in connection with infectious mononucleosis and can be treated. Sleep and rest are very important. Throat sore is reinforced within 5-7 days of onset of illness, and then disappear within 7-10 days. Increased lymph nodes are usually held the third week. The feeling of fatigue can not take place for months, and it follows the acute phase of illness. It is recommended for patients with infectious mononucleosis to avoid different sports during the first 6-8 weeks after illness, to prevent injury enlarged spleen. Enlarged spleen can tear, and it is very dangerous for life.
Patients may have viral particles in the saliva of 18 months after infection. When mono symptoms persist for more than six months, the disease is often called “chronic” infection. However, laboratory studies usually can not confirm infection with Epstein-Barr virus in people with “chronic” infection.
Disclaimer- This website doesn’t provide professional medical advice. In case of if a symptom occurs please get in touch with a professional doctors.